By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
A successor to A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (Cambridge, 1990), this quantity introduces the idea and technique in the back of the development of the hot time scale, earlier than featuring the dimensions itself in huge aspect. a global workforce of over 40 stratigraphic specialists develops the main updated foreign stratigraphic framework for the Precambrian and Phanerozoic eras. a wide wallchart (not on hand for e-book) summarizing the time scale behind the e-book completes this priceless reference for researchers and scholars.
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Extra resources for A Geologic Time Scale 2004
The 545 through 248 Ma Paleozoic part of the Phanerozoic time scale of Gradstein and Ogg (1996) is a composite from various sources, including the well-known scales by McKerrow et al. (1985), Harland et al. (1990), Roberts et al. (1995a), and Tucker and McKerrow (1995). The International Stratigraphic Chart (Remane, 2000) provides two different sets of ages for part of the Paleozoic stage boundaries. The column that has ages for most stages appears to slightly update Odin and Odin (1990), and Odin (1994) and is shown here.
The International Stratigraphic Chart for the Precambrian and Phanerozoic with ratiﬁed GSSPs is presented in the special color section of this book. org) and can be downloaded in the colors of either the Commission for the Geologic Map of the World (CGMW) or the United States Geological Survey (USGS). 26 PA RT I I N T RO D U C T I O N Era Period Paleozoic Stratigraphic Chart and GSSPs Series/ Epoch Stage Cambrian Ordovician Paleo zoic Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian Lopingian Changhsingian Wuchiapingian Capitanian Guadalupian Wordian Roadian Kungurian Artinskian Cisuralian Sakmarian Asselian Gzhelian Kasimovian Pennsylvanian Moscovian Bashkirian Serpukhovian MissisVisean sippian Tournaisian Famennian Late Frasnian Givetian Middle Eifelian Emsian Pragian Early Lochkovian GSSPs GSSP GSSP GSSP GSSP Penglaitan, Guangxi Province, China Nipple Hill, Guadalupe Mountains, TX, USA Guadalupe Mountains, TX, USA Stratotype Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, TX, USA GSSP Aidaralash, Ural Mountains, Kazakhstan GSSP Arrow Canyon, Nevada, USA GSSP GSSP GSSP GSSP GSSP GSSP GSSP GSSP Pridoli Ludfordian GSSP GSSP Ludlow Gorstian GSSP Homerian GSSP Wenlock Sheinwoodian GSSP Telychian GSSP Llandovery Aeronian GSSP Rhuddanian GSSP Hirnantian La Serre, Montagne Noir, France Coumiac, Cessenon, Montagne Noir, France Col du Puech, Montagne Noir, France Jebel Mech Irdane, Tafilalt, Morocco Wetteldorf Richtschnitt, Eifel Hills, Germany Zinzil'ban Gorge, Uzbekistan Velka Chuchle, SW Prague, Czech Rep.
1 Stratigraphic range of historical stratotypes of some Paleogene stages. , 1971). The stratotypes span less than half of Paleogene time; some are simply facies equivalents rather than chronostratigraphically distinct units. Only a few of these competing stage concepts were preserved in the nomenclature of the present Paleogene geologic time scale. International stages for the Paleogene are deﬁned at boundary stratotypes at which the basal boundary of the stage is positioned relative to primary and secondary biostratigraphic, geochemical, or magnetic polarity events for global correlation (modiﬁed from Hardenbol and Berggren, 1978).
A Geologic Time Scale 2004 by Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith