By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, strength potency and weather switch, this ebook offers an creation to Japan’s environmental rules and laws, and gives fiscal analyses and RIAs (Regulatory effect research) of environmental rules carried out or deliberate by way of the nationwide and native governments. the outlet bankruptcy reports environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using previous and polluting autos in metropolitan components. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan govt rules which calls for deploy of toxins keep watch over gear in older vehicles that fail to fulfill emission criteria. bankruptcy four lines the influence of the NOx-PM Act at the used vehicle industry and used car exports. bankruptcy five offers an monetary research of a street toll relief, revealing an unforeseen unfavourable social impression: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters tackle regulations and laws with regards to power potency and weather swap bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s power Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended quite a few instances to handle weather switch. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the effect of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate momentary monetary affects in each one area. additionally offered here's an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the influence of the suggestion on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the function and barriers of financial versions for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse fuel) emission aim in the course of the post-Kyoto interval. this is often the 1st booklet to guage eastern environmental guidelines from an monetary point of view, utilizing quite a few present quantitative ways. Its findings and recommendations will profit scholars, coverage makers and executive officers in constructing and constructed nations the place the general public faces related environmental problems.
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Extra info for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
These areas, which are called “specially designated regions,” are illustrated in Fig. 2. Under the NOx-PM Act, the VTR targets all old vehicles registered for parking in the enforcement areas in accordance with the Act on the Assurance of Car Parking Spaces and Other Matters. The VTR is the first attempt in the nation to reduce emissions from old vehicles. Regulations of this type are rare in other countries; typically, environmental regulations apply only to new vehicles, not to old vehicles already in use.
In summary, our estimates of the total cost are upwardly biased and are thus considered to be the upper bounds of the true costs. However, the errors in the estimates are likely to be small. 5 Benefit of the VTR In this section, we explain how we computed the benefits of the VTR, which are measured in terms of reductions in negative externalities resulting from emissions reductions. Based on the procedure that we used to compute the cost of the VTR, we first estimated the volume of emissions reduction achieved by replacing each type of vehicle.
The VTR is the first attempt in the nation to reduce emissions from old vehicles. Regulations of this type are rare in other countries; typically, environmental regulations apply only to new vehicles, not to old vehicles already in use. 8 Terminal years for vehicle types will be discussed in Sect. 4. The VTR appears to have contributed to reducing both PM and NOx emissions, as PM and NOx levels have gradually declined since 2001, although the PM level was highest in that year (Fig. 3). 5 Before the ES included the standard for PM in 1993, there was no regulation for controlling PM emissions.
An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics by Toshi H. Arimura