By Dr. med. Ernst Stein (auth.)
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Additional info for Anorectal and Colon Diseases: Textbook and Color Atlas of Proctology
The sue and the anal skin. The motor innervation of the external anal sphinc- approximate range of normal frequency is from ter is through neurons from the S2-S4 spinal seg- three times daily to three times weekly. In addition, ments; these fibers run through the pudendal one must also consider the form, consistency, color, and smell, as well as the presence of blood or munerve. The sensory and motor components required for cus, when assessing stool characteristics. continence are steered by an interaction of reflexes involving extraspinal and cortical mechanisms.
24 The Proctologic Examination Sterilization Sterilization is a step more effective than disinfection; it means that all microorganisms are killed or irreversibly inactivated, including bacterial and fungal spores which are often quite resistant. Methods of sterilization include heat, filtration, chemicals, and irradiation. Heat Sterilization Sterilization with heat is the simplest and most effective method and should always be employed when the material to be sterilized is heat-stable. One must distinguish between wet and dry heat as forms of sterilization.
Included in the list are damage or pathological changes in the frontal cortex ; the limbic system; the sacral spinal segments responsible for rectal control and their associated nerves, especially the conus medullaris and the cauda equina ; the intramural ganglion system; and other structures discussed above. Both primary neural tumors and metastases may be responsible for neurologically-related incontinence. Incontinence in older and elderly patients usually reflects degenerative neurological disease.
Anorectal and Colon Diseases: Textbook and Color Atlas of Proctology by Dr. med. Ernst Stein (auth.)