By Lamont V. Blake
This entire revision is a senior undergraduate or first-year graduate point textbook on antenna basics, layout, functionality research, and measurements. as well as its use as a proper path textbook, it truly is well-suited for pro education and self-study via training engineers, scientists, and technologists who wish to extend their wisdom of antennas. The booklet presents a large insurance of antenna kinds and phenomena, for operations at very low radio frequencies, in addition to frequencies as much as these of submillimeter wavelengths. not like so much university-level antenna textbooks, analyzing it doesn't require past abilities in electromagnetic concept, subtle arithmetic, or machine programming.
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Additional resources for Antennas - Fundamentals, Design, Measurement
1–10). Consequently, it “casts a shadow,” as illustrated in Fig. 1–12. Thus, Shadow Earth region it is apparent that radio waves traveling in a straight line from the antenna cannot penetrate the shadow region. There will FIGURE 1–12. be some diffraction into the shadow Radio-horizon effect and earth’s shadow. 32 Electromagnetic Waves region, but ordinarily the ﬁeld strength from this effect is too small to be of practical value for radio communication. Thus, “line-of-sight” radio propagation from an antenna of height h, Fig.
Diffuse reﬂection, therefore, is expressible only in terms of a power reﬂection coefﬁcient, Rd. Surfaces may also be semi-rough. For such surfaces the degree of roughness is not sufﬁcient to destroy the shape of the reﬂected wavefront completely; there is a mixture of diffuse reﬂection and specular reﬂection. In such cases a total power reﬂection coefﬁcient, R, may be expressed in terms of the diffuse-power-reﬂection coefﬁcient, Rd, and the specular-reﬂection coefﬁcient |G |. Since the total reﬂected power must be the sum of the diffuse and specular components, the relation for R is R = Rd + |G |2 (1–24) When the incident wave is reﬂected partly specularly and partly diffusely and is also partly transmitted, R may be substituted for |G |2 in (1–23).
These effects are refraction, reﬂection, interference, and diffraction. The ﬁrst two can be explained basically in terms of rays and wavefronts, the principles of geometric optics. The second two, however, can be explained only in terms of physical optics, which requires a more detailed consideration of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds. Geometric optics may be applied when the dimensions of all the signiﬁcant elements of the situation are large compared with the wavelength and when no wavelength-dependent effects are involved; otherwise the problem comes within the purview of physical optics or, more generally, electromagnetic theory.
Antennas - Fundamentals, Design, Measurement by Lamont V. Blake