By Bernard C. Kress, Patrick Meyrueis
Miniaturization and mass replications have started to steer the optical within the transition from conventional analog to novel electronic optics. As electronic optics input the world of mainstream know-how in the course of the around the world sale of purchaser digital units, this well timed publication goals to offer the subject of electronic optics in a unified approach. starting from micro-optics to nanophotonics, and layout to fabrication via to integration in ultimate items, it studies some of the actual implementations of electronic optics in both micro-refractives, waveguide (planar lightwave chips), diffractive and hybrid optics or sub-wavelength constructions (resonant gratings, floor plasmons, photonic crystals and metamaterials). eventually, it offers a finished record of commercial and advertisement purposes which are making the most of the original homes of electronic optics.
Applied electronic Optics is aimed essentially at optical engineers and product improvement and technical advertising managers; it's also of curiosity to graduate-level photonics scholars and micro-optic foundries.
Helps optical engineers overview and select the ideal software program instruments to layout, version and generate fabrication files.Content:
Chapter 1 From Refraction to Diffraction (pages 5–13):
Chapter 2 type of electronic Optics (pages 15–20):
Chapter three Guided?Wave electronic Optics (pages 21–46):
Chapter four Refractive Micro?Optics (pages 47–69):
Chapter five electronic Diffractive Optics: Analytic style (pages 71–109):
Chapter 6 electronic Diffractive Optics: Numeric kind (pages 112–156):
Chapter 7 Hybrid electronic Optics (pages 157–179):
Chapter eight electronic Holographic Optics (pages 181–215):
Chapter nine Dynamic electronic Optics (pages 217–252):
Chapter 10 electronic Nano?Optics (pages 253–293):
Chapter eleven electronic Optics Modeling strategies (pages 295–338):
Chapter 12 electronic Optics Fabrication suggestions (pages 339–411):
Chapter thirteen layout for production (pages 413–452):
Chapter 14 Replication suggestions for electronic Optics (pages 453–478):
Chapter 15 Specifying and checking out electronic Optics (pages 479–520):
Chapter sixteen electronic Optics software swimming pools (pages 521–579):
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Extra info for Applied Digital Optics: From Micro-Optics to Nanophotonics
Moreover, the laser diode waveguide core is not round or square, but rectangular, which produces strong astigmatism. Therefore, laser diode collimators are usually orthogonal cylindrical lenses instead of circular symmetric lenses. Collimating light from fibers is much easier, since the fiber core is round and symmetric. A desirable feature in laser-to-fiber or fiber-to-detector coupling is the use of arrays; for example, laser diode arrays coupled into fiber arrays in V-grooves for DWDM applications or VCSEL arrays (easier to produce).
11 Channel waveguides: physical implementations waveguides can also be combined on a single substrate; for example, in order to couple energy from one to the other. These are the basis of most telecom and sensor-based PLCs today [8,9]. 11). Diffusion fabrication techniques are often used for the production buried waveguides, similar to the ones described in Chapter 12, or for GRIN lenses (see also Chapter 4). Since it is difficult to produce quasi-circular gradient indices via diffusion techniques, buried waveguides are usually asymmetric and have a weak guidance (the effective core region lies at a very shallow depth below the surface, and light coupling is strong to the cladding or to the air).
1 dB per connection). Fabrication is also easy. Furthermore, they exhibit low-temperature sensitivity and polarization-dependent losses (PDLs). ), to produce active devices such as optical amplifiers, detectors, phase shifters and so on (see the final sections of this chapter). As their index is higher, the core section is usually smaller than the core section of lowindex waveguides, therefore giving rise to larger mode mismatch between the fibers and the PLCs. g. half the light is lost). Such high-index PLCs require mostly lensed fibers or mode converter PLCs, as described in the next section.
Applied Digital Optics: From Micro-Optics to Nanophotonics by Bernard C. Kress, Patrick Meyrueis