By George Rapp
Archaeomineralogy offers a wealth of data for mineralogists, geologists and archaeologists all for archaeometric stuides of our previous. the 1st variation used to be rather well recieved and praised for its systematic description of the rocks and minerals used througout the realm by means of our ancestors and for its first-class record of over 500 references, supplying quick access to the fields of archaeomineralogy and geoacrchaeology.
This moment version of Archaeomineralogy takes an up-to-date and multiplied examine the human use of rocks and minerals from the Paleolithic via to the 18th century ACE. It keeps the constitution and major topics of the unique version yet has been revised and extended with greater than two hundred new references within the textual content, a bibliography of worthwhile references no longer integrated within the textual content, a dozen new figures (drawings and photos), assurance of many extra very important mineral, rock, and gem fabrics, elevated geographic scope, quite yet no longer restricted to japanese Europe, and a extra thorough overview of early contributions to archaeomineralogy particularly these of Agricola.
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9). Pure quartz, SiO2, is transparent and colorless. Crystals of quartz are transparent to wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation ranging all the way from 1800 to 300,000 angstrom units. However, since impurities are often included in the crystal, colored varieties of quartz are common. 4 Color of Minerals 37 Fig. 9 Graphite’s deep black, opaque appearance is the result of its atomic bonding color to thin films of iron oxide incorporated in the surface planes of the growing crystal. It has been suggested that the lemon color of citrine quartz is produced either by colloidally dispersed particles of hydrous iron oxide too small to be seen with a microscope or by the presence of Fe3+ in noncrystalline surroundings.
Specimens that are polished by geologic or human action are much harder to identify than those showing natural features of cleavage, fracture, crystallinity, and color. 4 Color of Minerals Color has always been important to the human psyche, from protecting against evil spirits to attracting the opposite sex. In the modern Western world black is the symbol of mourning, white of purity, and red of passion or danger. To some groups in East Africa black is the color of joy. In ancient times purple pigment was rare and expensive, so it was a royal color.
Zinc minerals display a variety of colors, depending on their impurities, because zinc is not a transition element and does not contribute to color in 36 2 Properties of Minerals minerals. Sphalerite, ZnS, is colorless when pure and assumes its typical honeybrown color when iron substitutes for zinc in the structure. Willemite, Zn2SiO4, is also colorless when pure but develops a variety of colors through chemical substitution of other elements in the structure. The following transition elements produce the color indicated in parentheses when introduced into willemite: copper (light green), iron (gray), manganese (yellow), chromium (gray), and cobalt (intense blue).
Archaeomineralogy by George Rapp