By Masaki Satoh
General move types (GCMs), which outline the basic dynamics of atmospheric move, are these days utilized in a variety of fields of atmospheric technology reminiscent of climate forecasting, weather predictions and environmental estimations. the second one version of this popular paintings has been up to date to incorporate fresh development of excessive answer international modeling. It additionally comprises for the 1st time points of high-resolution international non-hydrostatic types that the writer has been learning because the e-book of the 1st variation. a few highlighted effects from the Non-hydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric version (NICAM) also are incorporated. the writer outlines the theoretical suggestions, basic versions and numerical equipment for modeling the overall movement of the ambience. targeting the actual mechanisms answerable for the advance of large-scale stream of the ambience, the ebook bargains finished assurance of an immense and quickly constructing process utilized in the atmospheric technology. Dynamic interpretations of the atmospheric constitution and their facets within the common circulate version are defined step via step.
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Extra resources for Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and General Circulation Models
Isosurfaces of density are parallel to iso-surfaces of pressure such that density is a function of pressure: ρ = ρ(p)). 2) becomes = 2Ω · ∇v − 2Ω(∇ · v). 6) is written as ∂u ∂v , ,− ∂z ∂z ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y = (0, 0, 0). , velocity does not change in the direction of the rotation vector). This is an expression of the Taylor-Proudman theorem. 4) dominate the other terms. 2: Thermal wind balance. Circulation of the baroclinic term is balanced by circulation of the tilting term.
32). 33), is expressed as γd ≡ ∂T ∂p = s 1 . 58) Sec. 2] Conservation laws and basic equations 11 or the change in the potential temperature is ρ dθ θ = 1 dp − dρ. 56), in the adiabatic process ds = dθ = 0, pressure and density are related as p = const. 2 Conservation laws and basic equations Now we turn to the formulation of the governing equations of a ﬂuid. Fluid motions are described by the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. We ﬁrst describe the conservation forms of each equation and then rewrite them in various forms.
1] Dry air 9 dry air as the mixture of gases in the atmosphere except water vapor. 39) where the subscript k denotes each component of dry air. 04 J kg−1 K−1 . It is easy to see that the internal energy and the enthalpy of ideal gas depend only on temperature. 43) ∂h ∂p = −T 2 v T = 0. 44) p In practice, we can assume that the speciﬁc heat is constant irrespective of temperature in the atmosphere. 45) that is, Cv is also constant. 46) where we have assumed that the internal energy at T = 0 K is zero.
Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and General Circulation Models by Masaki Satoh