Download Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X by Walter Tape PDF

By Walter Tape

ISBN-10: 087590727X

ISBN-13: 9780875907277

ISBN-10: 1118667557

ISBN-13: 9781118667552

Published via the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Special courses Series.

Atmospheric halos are noticeable phenomena of a lot good looks and fascination. From our earliest recognized files, courting from the Sumerian-Babylonian tradition of 4-5,000 years in the past, to trendy researchers, halos have saved us having a look skyward. attributable to mild refracted via ice crystals floating within the surroundings, they could look at approximately any time and position. What do the ice crystals appear like, particularly those who make the unique "odd radius" halos? what's the price of the elusive perspective x, so severe to deciding upon the shapes of those crystals? What halo screens will we comprehend good and what monitors will we now not comprehend at all?

This ebook responds to such questions, and extra, with a multifaceted view of halo technology. specialists and rookies alike will locate this booklet the definitive source at the topic. gains include:

  • The "how to" in halo remark and photography
  • Carefully analyzed pictures of infrequent halo monitors and pyramidal ice crystals
  • The early historical past of halo science
  • Elegant new causes of ways halos form
  • Authoritative dialogue of wierd radius halos

We invite you to gaze up and realize the realm of halos.

Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–8):
Chapter 2 Ice Crystal Gallery (pages 9–20):
Chapter three The Beginnings of Halo technological know-how (pages 21–32):
Chapter four How Halos shape (pages 33–42):
Chapter five Halo Simulations (pages 43–50):
Chapter 6 Halos From Prismatic Crystals (pages 51–64):
Chapter 7 atypical Radius Halos are actual (pages 65–70):
Chapter eight ordinary Radius round Halos (pages 71–89):
Chapter nine a few Crystallography (pages 91–100):
Chapter 10 Pyramidal Ice Crystals (pages 101–112):
Chapter eleven the hunt for perspective x (pages 113–128):
Chapter 12 Refraction Halos and Wedge attitude (pages 129–132):
Chapter thirteen The Spin Vector (pages 133–136):
Chapter 14 A User's consultant to Halo Poles (pages 137–144):
Chapter 15 abnormal Radius Plate Arcs (pages 145–164):
Chapter sixteen peculiar Radius Column Arcs (pages 165–178):
Chapter 17 bizarre Radius Parry Arcs (pages 179–182):
Chapter 18 different Wedge Angles? (pages 183–194):

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Additional info for Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X

Example text

As soon as a halo point is plotted, t h e computer stops and goes on t o consider another sun ray and another orientation for t h e crystal, a n d t h e process repeats. W h e n large n u m b e r s of dots are plotted, t h e density of dots in a given region gives an indication of intensity. T h e simulations show intensity variations within a halo as well as intensity variations from one halo t o another. T h e computer p r o g r a m t h a t makes t h e simulations is r a t h e r powerful. For example, it can be a d a p t e d t o simulate halos m a d e by crystals of any polyhedral shape, convex or not, even if t h e crystals are strongly birefringent.

2, upper right). T h e observer perceives a point of light in t h e direction opposite t o t h a t of t h e outgoing ray: this point is t h e light point of t h e outgoing ray, also known as t h e halo point. 2, b o t t o m left). T h u s , in t h i n k i n g a b o u t how halos form, you need only consider a single crystal, not a whole sky full of crystals. So long as every small region of sky is equivalent t o every other, you need not worry about where t h e observer is nor whether t h e outgoing r a y from t h e crystal actually reaches t h e observer.

It is not t h a t their light point diagrams fail t o be correct. Rather, they become too complex and not very enlightening. 8 2 HiSin Q = /7 sin0 1 1 2 2 Derivation of the geometric version of the law of refraction. 5, drawn with lengths of n and n , respectively. T h e traditional 1 2 law of refraction, namely, n^s\nO^ = n s i n 0 , ensures that the tangential components of the 2 2 two rays are equal. {Right) Same but showing the light points S and R of the incident and refracted rays. The line segment SR is normal to the boundary, as claimed.

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Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X by Walter Tape

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