By Karol Berger
During this erudite and assuredly composed argument, Karol Berger makes use of the works of Monteverdi, Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven to aid groundbreaking claims: first, that it used to be simply within the later eighteenth century that song started to take the movement of time from the earlier to the longer term heavily; moment, that this transformation within the constitution of musical time used to be a facet of a bigger transformation within the approach knowledgeable Europeans started to think and view time with the onset of modernity, part of a shift from the premodern Christian outlook to the fashionable post-Christian worldview. until eventually this ancient second, as Berger illustrates in his research of Bach's St. Matthew ardour, song used to be easily "in time." Its successive occasions opened up one after one other, however the contrast among prior and destiny, past and later, used to be now not primary to the way in which the tune used to be skilled and understood. yet after the shift, as he reveals in taking a look at Mozart's Don Giovanni, the adventure of linear time is reworked into music's crucial subject material; the cycle of time unbends and turns into an arrow. Berger enhances those musical case reviews with a wealthy survey of the philosophical, theological, and literary developments influencing artists in this interval.
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Extra resources for Bach's Cycle, Mozart's Arrow: An Essay on the Origins of Musical Modernity
Gebt mir meinen Jesum wieder” 49. “Aus Liebe will mein Heiland sterben” 52. “Können Tränen meiner Wangen” 57. “Komm, süßes Kreuz, so will ich sagen” 65. “Mache dich, mein Herze, rein” 68. The only exceptions are the opening and closing numbers of the Passion: No. 1, which is unlabeled, and No. ” I shall return to these two exceptions, but the twelve labeled arias sufﬁce for a preliminary reconstruction of Bach’s conception of the generic norms of the da capo aria. ) At least one feature belongs to the da capo (ABA) form by deﬁnition: the opening portion of the poem must return at the end.
Y. The story has not one ending but two. 5 On that earlier occasion the ﬁnal Bacchanal on stage (to be followed by a court ball ) served as a transition back to the heterosexual order threatened by Orpheus’s misogyny. 7 No matter: by giving the last word to the Bacchantes, Striggio, no less than Poliziano, provided a corrective to his hero’s male self-sufﬁciency. 8 When Poliziano staged his Favola d’Orfeo in Mantua in 1480 he found there, in the Camera Picta of Castello di San Giorgio, three scenes from the myth of Orpheus painted by Mantegna by 1474, among them the scene of Orpheus killed by the Maenads (Figure 5).
This is conﬁrmed in the subsequent Zion-Faithful numbers that provide verbal clues such as personal pronouns. There are two exceptions, two seeming inconsistencies: Nos. 19 and 67, where the Faithful speak in the ﬁrst person singular. The ﬁrst instance can be explained easily, for here the Faithful are singing a chorale, where such usage is common. The second instance I cannot explain, leaving us with one inconsistency in the Faithful’s use of the ﬁrst person singular. Zion, however, is always singular, even when her role is shared by two or four voices.
Bach's Cycle, Mozart's Arrow: An Essay on the Origins of Musical Modernity by Karol Berger