By Alvis J. Evans
While you're simply beginning out in electronics or want clean . this is often THE publication . really easy to appreciate . have to prepare for an uncomplicated digital examination . this is often THE booklet . nice publication , you will adore it . every little thing IS defined IN HUMAN phrases now not advanced engineer phrases . it's a needs to personal for digital technicians .
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Extra resources for Basic Digital Electronics
Still further improvements in 74HC/74HCT series led to the advanced CMOS logic (74AC/74ACT) series. The 74AC (advanced CMOS) series approached speeds comparable with the 74F TTL series, while the 74ACT (advanced CMOS TTL compatible) series was designed to be TTL compatible. 3 Input/Output Voltages and Noise Margins The exact input voltage levels required for a logic IC to perceive a high (logic 1) or low (logic 0) input level differ between the various logic families. At the same time, 352 PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS FOR INVENTORS the high and low output levels provided by a logic IC vary among the logic families.
7 Logic Gates with Open-Collector Outputs Among the members of the TTL series there exists a special class of logic gates that have open-collector output stages instead of the traditional totem-pole configuration you saw earlier. (Within the CMOS family, there are similar devices that are said to have open-drain output stages). These devices are not to be confused with the typical logic gates you have seen so far. Logic gates with open-collector outputs have entirely different output characteristics.
The lower figures show both a high and low output state, along with the approximate voltages present at various locations. Notice that the actual output voltages are not exactly 0 or +5V—a result of internal voltage drops across resistor, transistor, and diode. 3 V for low. As a note, to create, say, an eight-input NAND gate, the multiemitter input transistor would have eight emitters instead of just two as shown. 54 A simple modification to the standard TTL series was made early on by reducing all the internal resistor values in order to reduce the RC time constants and thus increase the speed (reduce propagation delays).
Basic Digital Electronics by Alvis J. Evans