By Dr. med. Gabriel Stux, Prof. Bruce Pomeranz MD, Ph.D (auth.)
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Therefore, to show statistical significance in the differences between sham-point needling and true-point needling requires huge numbers of patients (at least 122 per study), and experiments that would allow definitive conclusions have not yet been done  (see Sect. 2). It is puzzling that sham acupuncture works in 33%-50% of patients with chronic pain, while not working at all in acute laboratory-induced pain. Because of these problems the specificity of acupoints has only been shown in acute pain studies in humans but has yet to be properly studied in patients with chronic pain, where the number of patients studied has never exceeded the required statistical minimum of 122.
Preliminary results to date suggest that acupuncture points sometimes do have a lower impedance (resistance) than surrounding skin. Whether or not acupoints will turn out to have a lower skin resistance than surrounding skin, the point finders commercially available are very unreliable . We have no idea what the physiological significance (if any) could be of low resistance at acupoints. It is known that sweating has a profound effect on skin resistance; this forms the basis of lie detector tests.
Exterior, excess, and heat are Yang criteria, while interior, deficiency, and cold are Yin criteria. The eight diagnostic criteria seldom occur in isolation as described, but rather in various combinations. Thus, excess and heat, two Yang criteria, often occur together. The classic phrase for a phenomenon of this kind is Yang in Yang. Excess and cold can also occur simultaneously, or deficiency and heat. Often it is necessary to apply the eight diagnostic categories to the symptoms of illness and functional disturbances of the Zang and Fu organs.
Basics of Acupuncture by Dr. med. Gabriel Stux, Prof. Bruce Pomeranz MD, Ph.D (auth.)