By Nitar Nwe
These days biopolymers comparable to agar, agarose, alginate, carageenan, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, collagen, hyaluronic acid, gelatin, glucan, starch, DNA, RNA and protein were made from laboratory to commercial scale. The physico-chemical houses of those biopolymers equivalent to chemical compositions, solubility, molecular weight and viscosity are of significant significance at the guidance of micro- and nanomaterials equivalent to powder, answer, hydrogel, micro- and nano-sized pores in membrane, micro- and nano-fiber, macro- and micro-beads, nano-particles, and micro- and nano-structured scaffold. those micro and nano-materials were utilized in a variety of sectors comparable to agriculture, nutrition, drugs, and so on. This monograph will tackle the resource and creation equipment of biopolymers, homes of biopolymers, instruction of micro- and nano-materials utilizing biopolymers, characterization of micro- and nano-biomaterials and alertness of micro- and nano-biomaterials
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Extra info for Biopolymers based micro-and nano-materials
The molecular compositions of biopolymers are shown in Table 3-1. According to their molecular compositions, the solubility properties of these biopolymers are also different from each other (Table 3-2). Table 3-1 Molecular compositions of biopolymers. Biopolymers Molecular composition Agar1, 18 A linear polymer of 3-1inkedb-D-galactopyranose and 4-linked 3,6-anhydro-a-L-galactopyranose 3 Agarose A linear polymer of alternating (1,3)-linkedb-D-galactopyranose and 1,4-linked-3, 6-anhydro-a-L-galactopyranose Alginic acid18 A linear polymer based on two monomeric units, b-D mannuronic acid and a-L guluronic acid 18, 19 Carrageenan A 1inear polysaccharide with a repeating structure of alternating 1,3-linked b-D galactopyranose and 1,4-1inked a-D galactopyranose units.
Similar spinning system and chitosan, calcium chloride and methanol solution have been used to fabricate chitosan fibers . Flow chart for spinning of chitosan fibers is shown in Figure 4-3. Electrospinning of nanofibers Nanofibers have been fabricated using electrospinning system . Flow chart for fabrication of nanofibers is shown in Figure 4-4. org/about-asme/t 30 Biopolymers Based on Micro- and Nano-Materials Figure 4-1 Flow chart for preparation of multi-layered chitosan coated Ca-alginate beads (E) and SEM images of bead in the preparation process (A: Ca-alginate bead, B: chitosan coated Ca-alginate bead, C: Chitosan coated Ca-alginate bead impregnated with Ni2+, D: Multi-layered chitosan coated Ca-alginate bead).
The values are expressed as the mean of independent replicates . 5-D In vitro biodegradation of micro- and nano-biomaterials The biodegradation rate of biomaterials was determined in vitro by measuring the change in sample weight over time under treatment with lysozyme under specific conditions. The initial dry weight of materials was determined and recorded as W1. The materials were sterilized in PBS buffer at 121°C for 15 min. After cooling, free solution was removed from the sterilized biomaterials and incubated in 7 mL of sterilized PBS buffer containing 10 μg/mL hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme.
Biopolymers based micro-and nano-materials by Nitar Nwe