By Michael L. Power, Jay Schulkin
This quantity examines the function of steroids and peptides within the legislation of being pregnant and being pregnant final result, in addition to their long term results. while pregnant the placenta acts as a crucial regulator and coordinator of maternal and fetal body structure, and on the onset of work, via its construction and law of steroids and peptides. Perturbations to this regulatory method may end up in terrible being pregnant final result, similar to preterm delivery and occasional start weight. The induction and suppression of peptides via steroids seems to be key to regulatory functionality in either mind and placenta.
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Additional info for Birth, Distress and Disease: Placental-Brain Interactions
20 F. Petraglia et al. , 1993). , 1992a; Warren and Silverman, 1995). , 1988), as well as in syncytiotrophoblast cells (Warren and Silverman, 1995). , 1989; Riley and Challis, 1991). , 1989). , 1988; Warren and Silverman, 1995). , 1995). , 1990c; Leung and Peng, 1996). , 2000). , 1998). In particular, recent ﬁndings show the presence in pregnant myometrium of subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b, and the variant -Rc, whereas only the 1a, 1b and 2b receptors are detectable in nonpregnant myometrium (Hillhouse and Grammatopoulos, 2002).
4). , 2002d; Hillhouse and Grammatopoulos, 2002). Placental CRH could, however, like fetal CRH, also stimulate fetal pituitary ACTH. , 2002d). This increase in estrogen then could serve as a trigger for the cascade of events leading to labor and parturition. , 2002d). Further, estrogens stimulate proteolytic enzymes in the cervix, such as collagenase, which break down the extracellular matrix permitting the cervix to dilate. , 1998). , 2002d; Hillhouse and Grammatopoulos, 2002). , 2002d). Thus, there may be a feto-placental unit which involves fetal glucocorticoids and placental CRH as well as that involving fetal DHEA-S and placental estrogen.
With respect to trophoblast localization a large quantity of OT-like substance exists in human placental tissue, mainly in the syncytiotrophoblast (Mitchell and Schmid, 2001). By ribonuclease protection assays, a signiﬁcantly higher amount of OT mRNA has been detected in tissue obtained after spontaneous labor compared with those obtained at term but before labor onset. This suggested that OT mRNA levels increase around the time of parturition either through increased transcription of the mRNA or increased stability of the mRNA, thus supporting a role for OT in 26 F.
Birth, Distress and Disease: Placental-Brain Interactions by Michael L. Power, Jay Schulkin