By WALCOTT C.D.,
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Extra resources for Cambrian geology and paleontology. I. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, 53-LXXVIII
In Quito, the group which was convened to provide project oversight and institutional input was comprised of about fifteen individuals, representative of a broad spectrum of interests, painstakingly selected by the local project organizers in consultation with OYO Pacific, now GeoHazards International. This group was identified as the Conseil d'Affaires Sociales et Economiques (CASE). In addition to the CASE's initial two-day meeting, they have convened a second time formally and a third time informally through participation in a two day workshop which has proven to be a critical step in the scenario development process.
Contemporary damaging earthquakes such as those mentioned, as weIl as Coalinga, California in 1983, Philippines, 1990 and Erzincan, Turkey, 1992, stimulated this aspect ofhazard-reduction efIorts. The balance between risk reduction and general benefits has become a central issue (Panel, 1989). Part of the debate hinges on the efIectiveness of past research and its application and justification for future efIorts. On the seismological side, one critica1 advance in the last two decades that can be thoroughly justified as 25 cost-effective is the successful instrumental recording of strong ground shaking in earthquakes in California, Japan, ltaly, Turkey, India, China, Mexico, Chile and elsewhere.
A well-planned program of hazard analysis, risk assessment and emergency preparation can leave long-lasting local benefits and is transferable to other urban centers. Can the promise of an era of minimal earthquake risk be delivered in a decade? The most difficult problem is finding the capital, against competing economic demands, for retrofit of vulnerable buildings and lifelines. Earthquakes such as the 1989 Lorna Prieta earthquake in California make it quite clear, however, that rnajor seismicity near metropolitan areas will have serious economic effects, not only regionally, but nationally.
Cambrian geology and paleontology. I. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, 53-LXXVIII by WALCOTT C.D.,