Download Carbon-Energy Taxation: Lessons from Europe by Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins PDF

By Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins

ISBN-10: 019957068X

ISBN-13: 9780199570683

While taxes are brought on carbon and effort, and the profit is used to lessen different taxes, will a favorable impact be accomplished either for the surroundings and for the economic climate? In 1990 Finland was once the 1st nation to introduce a tax on CO2. Later, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Slovenia, Germany and the united kingdom swimsuit with tax reforms that shifted taxation from labour to carbon and effort. through the years, CO[{2} and effort taxes have progressively been raised, in order that in Europe taxes of greater than 25 billion Euros a 12 months were shifted. This publication examines carbon-energy taxation intimately and appears at tax transferring programmes for reducing different taxes. It deals wide research at the foundation of historic information and seeks to respond to vital questions for policy-making, comparable to: What used to be the impression of tax transferring for fiscal functionality and competitiveness? by means of how a lot have been emissions of CO[{2} decreased? may energy-intensive industries minimize additional down on their gas call for or did they free industry stocks? To what quantity was once there "leakage" from Europe, in order that creation and CO[{2} emissions have been shifted to different nations or areas with out CO[{2} -abatement coverage? using distinct and unique facts, together with sector-specific power costs and taxes, in addition to using complex statistical suggestions, corresponding to co-integration research and panel-regression options in addition to the time-series envisioned macro-economic version E3ME, make this a very accomplished quantity. at the foundation of the teachings realized in Europe, this quantity exhibits how carbon-energy taxation may well usefully be mixed with emissions buying and selling, and discusses implications for destiny overseas weather coverage, together with how the IPCC ideas for a gentle escalation in carbon cost will be entire whereas fighting carbon leakage.

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1992. ‘OECD’s indicators of international trade and competitiveness’. Working Papers 120, GD(92)138. OECD: Economics Department. Enevoldsen, M. 2005. The Theory of Environmental Agreements and Taxes. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. , and Porter, M. 2001. ‘Ranking national environmental regulation and performance: a leading indicator of future competitiveness’. The Global Competitiveness Report 2001–2002. Oxford: Oxford University Press. European Commission. 2004. European Competitiveness Report. SEC(2004)1397.

One could have a ‘leopard spot’ economy, with islands of strongly competitive sectors or firms among others which are not. There is no particular reason to expect that all firms and sectors in a country should be at the same level of competitiveness. In any case, most countries have a fairly large domestic sector which is not exposed to competition to the same degree as their export-oriented industries. For this reason, most analysis of competitiveness is focused on the manufacturing sector, leaving services and welfare provision aside.

6 billion EUR) generated from environmental taxes. The 1995 tax reform, that is, phase 2, was implemented during the period 1996–2000 and the main sector affected was industry. 45 billion DKK (330 million EUR)—approx. 2 per cent of GDP in 2000. r The programme of tax shifts: The revenues raised by increasing the energy tax rates, as well as the introduction of a sulphur tax and an energy tax on natural gas, were used to reduce employers’ social security contributions and to provide subsidies for investment in energy efficiency programmes.

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Carbon-Energy Taxation: Lessons from Europe by Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins


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