By Michael Tanangkingsing
Past grammars of Cebuano have in most cases defined the language in formal phrases with out a lot recognition paid on genuine utilization. To fill this hole, this useful reference grammar of Cebuano in line with the particular spoken language departs from the normal emphasis on phonological, morphological, and phrasal description hired in such a lot past or even in fresh reference grammars and conducts analyses on the clausal and discourse degrees to higher replicate the types and services of the language in real use. It additionally describes contemporary learn findings on Cebuano grammar, specifically fix association and grammatical constituency, transitivity, reference monitoring, and debris and discourse marking, as those represent a vital a part of the grammar of Cebuano. This reference grammar comes in handy to linguists, in addition to to local audio system and scholars of Cebuano alike. For linguists, the wealthy info offer fabric for linguistic comparisons. For local audio system, this reference offers one other point of view for appreciating their mom tongue. for college kids, the examples and factors give you the events and contexts for correct use of the language.
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Additional resources for Cebuano. A Functional Reference Grammar of Cebuano
Here, T forgets to take her juice and asks Mario to get it for her. ’ The verb gi-biya-an would imply that she intended to leave her juice and that it would be her fault that it was not with her. Replacing gi-biya-an with na-biya-an would mean that it was not done on purpose. 5. ' 20 The passive na- in Cebuano can be treated as a "passive"-marking morpheme, as there is comparative evidence that na- passives without the presence of As are fairly widespread especially in northern Philippine languages (Reid 2006; Reid and Liao 2004).
See also Chapter 13 for the discussion of passive constructions in Cebuano. 46 Table 2-8. Verbal affix paradigm (simplified) (adapted from Wolff 1970: 76 and Ghazali 1990: 54) Aspect/Mood Abilitative / Volitional Progressive Tense Potential AV mi-; ni-; ningnag-; naga-; ganaka-; naIndicative PV gina-; gipaNginaNon-future LV gi-…-an gina-…-an na-…-an IV giga-; gina-; gipaNgika; naAV mo-; maNmag-; magamaka-; maIndicative PV -on pa-ga-…-on maFuture LV -an pa-ga-…-an ma-…-an (Infinitive) IV iiga-; ipagika-; maAV pag-; maNpagDependent PV -a pa-ga-…-a (Imperative LV -i pa-ga-…-i ma-…-i and Negation) IV iipagikaTable 2-9.
Thin-ness' The derivation of more abstract entities further employs the morpheme ka- in addition to the PV suffix -on, as in (27). 14 As also indicated by the English glosses and translations, it is probably a semantic universal that to derive abstract nouns, derivational affixes are only attached to positive adjectives, rather than negative adjectives. as 'high; tall' wala? 'existential negator' Aside from marking voice on verbs, the -an suffix is a productive means of deriving lexical nouns.
Cebuano. A Functional Reference Grammar of Cebuano by Michael Tanangkingsing