By Herve Chamley
Clay Sedimentology is a entire textbook divided into six components: - clay minerals and weathering - clay sedimentation on land - foundation and behavior of clay minerals and linked minerals in transitional environments (estuaries, deltas) and shallow-sea environments - assorted origins of clay within the marine setting - post-sedimentary approaches intervening in the course of early and past due diagenesis - use of clay stratigraphic facts for the reconstruction of earlier weather, marine stream, tectonics, and different paleogeographical features. A simple concept on so much themes facing sedimentary clays is gifted and debatable info and uncertainties from the frontiers of data are discussed.
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Additional resources for Clay Sedimentology
7) °lo(OHh· 10 (OHh 1. Clay Minerals 15 Iron-rich chlorites, or chamosites, occur commonly in iron-ore deposits. Their Xray diffraction patterns differ from those of ferriferous kaolinite (berthierine) by the presence of a small (001) reflection (14 A) and from those of true chlorite by the increasing height of this reflection after heating. Swelling chlorites or pseudo-chlorites expand like smectites when immersed in water or ethylene glycol, but resist heating like chlorites. They appear to represent an alternation of smectitic layers and octahedral brucitic sheets.
They include two types: (1) White alkali soils or solontehaks form under very evaporative conditions, are fairly thin, and consist mainly of chloride. (2) Black alkali soils or solonetz correspond to mOre humid conditions, comprise both an A horizon with appreciable organic matter and a B horizon with a prismatic structure, and are rich in sodium carbonates. Salts mainly issue from hydrolysis of surrounding slopes, often associated with cyclic desiccation of preexisting lakes. In most eases, the clay mineralogy of halomorphie soUs reproduees that of surrounding parent roeks or underlying soUs and sediments.
R +: Mg. 10 Mixed-Iayers Mixed-Iayered or interstratified clays refer to remarkable phyllosilicate structures, characterized by a vertical stacking sequence of two or more types of single layers. The layers involved can be of2:1, 2:1:1 and even 1:1 types. The possibility of mixed-Iayering or interstratification results from the rather weak chemical and structurallinkage existing between the successive layers in a given clay particle. As the basal surfaces of all different types of clay layers present similar sheets of oxygen and hydroxyl arranged in a hexagonal mesh, layers with different internal arrangements can stack together and still keep mobile interfaces.
Clay Sedimentology by Herve Chamley