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By B. Velde

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Assymmetry is shown towards large A = natural 2Ml muscovite; B = natural illite (1Md); C = synthetic illite (lMd), 75% mica, 25% prophyllite composition; D = synthetic 1M muscovite E = natural 1 M glauconite; F = synthetic 1M celadonite mica. a 31 in sedimentary rocks, the material represents a wide range of compositional solid solution. , 1962 and 1963); however, this proves rather unweildly and costly. Extraction for chemical analysis presents much the same problem and still does not give good definition of the origin of a particular specimen.

Solutions are saturated with amorphous silica at 100-160 ppm at p H < 9 (Krauskopf, 1959). Experi- mentalists have not been able to precipitate quartz or another crystalline form solution below 8OoC. Harder and Flehmig (1970) formed quartz from an amorphous silica-iron precipitate in solutions containing silica concentrations below those of amorphous silica solubility at temperatures less than 8OOC. Mackenzie and Gees (1971) were able to crystallize quartz on abraded grains. These two experiments illustrate that it is difficult to precipitate quartz directly from solution except when using methods which eliminate the apparent kinetic barriers to quartz equilibria at low temperatures.

1969). This indicates that the chemical reactions at low temperatures involving silica in solution have bypassed crystalline quartz. It is evident then that quartz is largely inert in many weathering and sedimentary environments. A study by Mizutani (1970) indicates that the transformation amorphous silica + 9 6 cristobalite (opal, chalcedony) +quartz takes 10 years at O°C, 10 years at 100°C at 100 bars. This ensures that amorphous silica will be present for significant periods of time in sedimentary rocks after its deposition from solution.

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Clays and Clay Minerals in Natural and Synthetic Systems by B. Velde


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