Download Climate and Climate Change (The Living Earth) by John P. Rafferty PDF

By John P. Rafferty

ISBN-10: 1615303030

ISBN-13: 9781615303038

ISBN-10: 161530388X

ISBN-13: 9781615303885

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Natural forest fires and man-made fires). Many of the larger condensation nuclei over land consist of ammonium sulfate. These are produced by cloud and fog droplets absorbing sulfur dioxide and ammonia from the air. 0004 inch) in diameter are produced in this manner. These droplets constitute a nonprecipitating cloud. Cloud Types The meteorologist classifies clouds mainly by their appearance, according to an international system similar to one proposed in 1803. But because the dimensions, shape, structure, and texture of clouds are influenced by the kind of air movements that result in their formation and growth and by the properties of the cloud particles, much of what was originally a purely visual classification can now be justified on physical grounds.

Interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere proceed in both directions. They also operate at different rates. Some interesting lag effects, which are of value in long-range weather forecasting, arise through the considerably slower circulation of the ocean. Thus, enhanced strength of the easterly trade winds over low latitudes of the Atlantic north and south of the Equator impels more water toward the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, producing a stronger flow and greater warmth in the Gulf Stream approximately six months later.

The effect of continentality may be moderated by proximity to the ocean, depending on the direction and strength of the prevailing winds. Contrast with ocean temperatures at the edges of each continent may be further modified by the presence of a north- or south-flowing ocean current. For most latitudes, however, continentality explains much of the variation in average temperature at a fixed latitude as well as variations in the difference between January and July temperatures. Diurnal, Seasonal, and Extreme Temperatures The diurnal range of temperature generally increases with distance from the sea and toward those places where solar radiation is strongest—in dry tropical climates and on high mountain plateaus (owing to the reduced thickness of the atmosphere to be traversed by the Sun’s rays).

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Climate and Climate Change (The Living Earth) by John P. Rafferty


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