By Dominic Maurath
Chip-integrated strength administration ideas are a needs to for ultra-low energy platforms. this permits not just the optimization of cutting edge sensor functions. it's also crucial for integration and miniaturization of strength harvesting offer ideas of transportable and self sustaining tracking systems.
The ebook relatively addresses interfaces for power harvesting, that are the main aspect to attach micro transducers to strength garage parts. major beneficial properties of the e-book are:
- A finished expertise and alertness evaluate, fundamentals on transducer mechanics, primary circuit and keep watch over layout, prototyping and trying out, as much as sensor approach provide and applications.
- Novel interfacing techniques - together with energetic rectifiers, MPPT tools for effective monitoring of DC in addition to AC assets, and a fully-integrated cost pump for effective greatest AC strength monitoring at sub-100µW ultra-low energy degrees. The chips in achieving considered one of widest offered operational voltage diversity in normal CMOS know-how: 0.44V to over 4.1V.
- certain chapters on analog circuit layout – it reports advantages and stumbling blocks on applied chip prototypes with 3 ambitions: extremely- low strength, large provide voltage diversity, and integration with common applied sciences. substitute layout techniques are pursued utilizing bulk-input transistor phases in forward-bias operation for amplifiers, modulators, and references.
- accomplished Appendix – with extra primary research, layout and scaling guidance, circuit implementation tables and dimensions, schematics, resource code listings, invoice of fabric, etc.
The mentioned prototypes and given layout instructions are established with genuine vibration transducer units. The meant readership is graduate scholars in complicated classes, lecturers and academics, R&D engineers.
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Extra info for CMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers: Interfaces for Ultra-Low Voltage Energy Harvesting
The forward voltage drop is also reduced in transistor-based passive rectifier designs when the devices are driven directly by the input; for example, Le et al.  report a passive full-wave rectifier that uses parallel transistor switches. In 2004 Nadjafi et al.  proposed using diode-connected transistors with one cross coupled transistor pair. 5 µm CMOS process implementation. As a next step, rectifiers with two cross-coupled transistor pairs has been presented by [137, 138]. Using this topology almost zero forward voltage drops could be shown, resulting in an efficiency of 90 % with input voltages of 2 V at a high frequency, and a 20 kΩ load.
Achievements The main achievements of this research can be summarized as follows: • The effects of loading electromagnetic transducers has been studied so as to identify a suitable MPP tracking method suitable for ultra low-power operation. Thus, 28 • • • • • • • 1 Introduction continuous fractional voltage tracking has been found superior to average tracking or the non-linear methods often preferred for piezoelectric transducers (also at off-resonance and non-sinusoidal excitation). A MPP tracking concept has been invented for combing the continuous fractional voltage tracking with low control and switching activity.
While a first design implemented as a full-bridge rectifier, a further optimized design installs an active Delon voltage doubler using two active diodes. The advantage of the voltage doubler is the better usage of low transducer voltages—particularly since MPP harvesting reduces the transducer’s output voltage even further for the maximum power extraction. • For the design of the active rectifiers the relevance of the high transducer source resistances have been revealed. 4 Contribution of this Book • • • • 29 designed, unstable operation and ringing will result when using active diodes.
CMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers: Interfaces for Ultra-Low Voltage Energy Harvesting by Dominic Maurath