By Claus F.K. Diessel
The writer offers examples of coal deposits various continents: from the eu Carboniferous and the Permian Gondwana series of Australia. The natural and petrographic composition of the coal content material of palaeo-environmentally good outlined teams of sediments enable the discrimination of 2 coal facies indices as appropriate symptoms for specific settings. Combining the analytical equipment of coal petrography, sedimentology and series stratigraphy an built-in view of coal formation is attained.
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Extra resources for Coal-Bearing Depositional Systems
Fig. 13. Composite photomicrograph showing, from top to bottom, increasing stages in the transformation of leaf tissue (mesophyll) into semifusinite. All examples are from high volatile bituminous coal from the Gunnedah Basin, New South Wales. g. Sunda Sea in Southeast Asia). The influx of even moderate amounts of sediments into shallow water causes marine regression and build-up of coastal marshes and swamps. Only 30000 years ago, when during the Pleistocene Epoch much sea water was locked in the greatly increased polar ice caps and mountain glaciers, the concomitant lowering of the sea level by approximately 100 m shifted strandlines much closer to the edges of the shelf break.
Triassic: 41 Leigh Creek Coal Measures (Middle to Upper Triassic) at Leigh Creek. 42 Triassic coals at Fingal, Merrywood and in south-eastern Tasmania. ) near Gladstone. 44 Some economic coal in the Nymboida Coal Measures (Lower to Middle Triassic) of the Clarence Basin. 45 Mainly steam coals in the Ipswich Coal Measures (Lower to Middle Triassic) at Ipswich. 46 One seam at Nundah near Brisbane. Jurassic: 47 Several seams in the Wonthaggi Coal Measures of South Gippsland. ) near Dubbo. 49 Seams in the Walloon Coal Measures (Dogger to Lower Maim) and the Grafton Shales (Upper Maim) of the Clarence-Moreton Basin.
E. ) begins with the advent of the Spermatophyta (seed plants). Some of them coexisted with the pteridophytes since the end of the Devonian Period but they never dominated the floral assemblages to the extent it happened from the Permian Period onwards, although according to Patteisky (1958) gymnosperms begin to spread from mid-Westphalian B, and Josten (1962) notes a sharp increase in Cordatitales in the stratigraphically highest interseam sediments (Westphalian C z ) of the Ruhr Coal Measures before the end of coal formation.
Coal-Bearing Depositional Systems by Claus F.K. Diessel