By Thomas Lengauer
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Additional resources for Combinatorial Algorithms for Integrated Circuit Layout
Say, the machine stores a 0 or a 1 into a specific register, depending on how the coin falls. Now the randomization is internal to the algorithm, and, if the algorithm is lucky throwing coins, every instance may have a chance of being solved efficiently. Formally, a randomized algorithm A is a deterministic algorithm having two inputs (p,O"), one being the problem instance p and one being an infinite binary string 0" containing the outcomes of all coin tosses. The outcomes are read from 0" in left to right order.
When should a layout designer choose a semicustom and when a full-custom layout style? The answer depends on the type of product he is designing. If he is 8 Chapter 1. Introduction to Circuit Layout working on a highly complex circuit that is going to be produced for a long time in large quantities, then it pays to go the rockier full-custom route and to spend a lot of time producing a highly optimized layout. If, however, the product is an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), such as go into products such as appliances or telephones, a more highly automated semicustom layout style may be preferable.
2(b). The directed acyclic graph describing a segmented hierarchy is a rooted tree. The segmented hierarchy represents a data structure in which each instance of a cell is described fully. This form of a hierarchical description is called segmented because it suggests segmenting the storage image of the circuit description such that each storage segment holds the information pertaining to a single node in the segmented hierarchy-that is, a single cell instance. The segmented hierarchy uses no less storage space than does the complete nonhierarchical circuit description, but structures storage in a way that makes processing the design more efficient.
Combinatorial Algorithms for Integrated Circuit Layout by Thomas Lengauer