By Marie E. Isaacs
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It is precisely because it is of God and from God that it is not always possible to distinguish the spirit of God from the spirit of man. In terms of its origin and nature it could be said that nveipa is always w e i p a Beiov. It was given to man at creation. js? 11, 8, and could therefore have been altered by a process of assimilation. It is obvious that he is aware that Gen 2:7 reads lrvdi rather than nveipa, because his exposition of the difference between the heavenly man of Gen 1 and the earthly man of Gen 2 is largely based upon it.
18 - The Concept of Spirit 3 IINETMA AND THE NATURE OF GOD nYeipa and the Divine Underlying the theological use of the term rrueiw. is a reference to the divine. Thus, it is described by Hellenistic Jewish writers as nveipa Oeoi or w e i p a Oeiov. Therefore, any understanding of the concept of w e i p a can only be gained via an appreciation of the Jewish concept of God. Pneumatology is but an aspect of theology. ). He believed that b j p and m i p a compassed the world, and, according to Diogenes Laertius,' regarded a f i p as the first principle of the universe.
God in His Being is unknown and incomprehensible. '" By the less enlightened these appearances are taken for God Himself, whereas they are only his image ( ~ i ~ b v ) . '03 95 Mut. 27; Leg. Alleg. 11, 86 etc. 96 Sacr. 54; Fug. 131. 97 Opif. 8 q e r r r w u fi a k d r d byaadu. This is opposed to Plato's equation of God with the good. Cf. Rep. VI, 504D; 508E. 98 Immut. 56; Leg. AUeg. 11, 36. 99 Mut. 27. 100 Saci. 60. 101 Mut. 128; Som. 11, 189;Prob. 43;Det. 161;V. Mos I, 158. 102 Leg. AUeg. 111, 78;Leg.
Concept of Spirit: A Study of Pneuma in Hellenistic Judaism and its Bearing on the New Testament by Marie E. Isaacs