By Dennis K. Hubbard, Caroline S. Rogers, Jere H. Lipps, George D. Stanley Jr.
In this booklet, members from diversified backgrounds take a primary step towards an built-in view of reefs and the importance in their fresh decline. greater than the other earth approach, coral reefs take a seat at a disciplinary crossroads. such a lot lately, they've got reached one other crossroads - primary alterations of their bio-physical constitution more than these of prior centuries or perhaps millennia. potent recommendations to mitigate fresh tendencies would require an process that embraces the myriad views from around the medical panorama, yet also will want a mechanism to remodel clinical realizing into social will and political implementation.
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Additional resources for Coral Reefs at the Crossroads
Physical processes outside of the organism (such as diffusion through a boundary layer) respond to concentration. The use of pH (-log [H+]) rather than [H+] clouds the fact that immense changes in [H+] occur across diffusion barriers that form outside of the tissues. The strength of these gradients increases with increasing OA (Jokiel 2011a). Until recently the focus on limiting factors for coral calciﬁcation rate has been on the reactants (left side of Eqs. 7), with an emphasis on uptake of speciﬁc forms of DIC.
2010) who report that calciﬁcation in symbiotic corals is not strictly a “light-enhanced” or “dark-repressed” process, but rather, the products of photosynthesis have a critical role in calciﬁcation, which should be viewed as a “photosynthesis-driven” process. Several recent models of coral calciﬁcation involve the zooxanthellae in the removal or neutralization of excess protons produced by calciﬁcation. McConnaughey and Whelan (1997) proposed that calciﬁcation in corals enhances photosynthesis by providing a source of protons that convert seawater HCO3À to CO2 and H2O, thereby supplying some of the CO2 used in photosynthesis.
1998) involve various pathways for buffering the H+ produced during calciﬁcation using OHÀ produced by photosynthesis (Fig. 1a). In contrast, a more recent model (Jokiel 2011a, 2011b, 2013; Jokiel et al. 2014a; Jokiel 2015) is focused on factors controlling dissipation of protons into the water column and uptake of DIC. During daylight hours the high tissue oxygen tension resulting from photosynthesis will stimulate respiration (Mass et al. 2010). Colombo-Pallotta et al. (2010) found that under normal physiological conditions, a 42 % increase in seawater oxygen concentration promotes a twofold increase in dark-calciﬁcation rates relative to controls.
Coral Reefs at the Crossroads by Dennis K. Hubbard, Caroline S. Rogers, Jere H. Lipps, George D. Stanley Jr.