By Ichiro Sunagawa
How do crystals nucleate and develop? Why and the way do crystals shape this type of big choice of morphologies? those questions were posed because the 17th century, and are nonetheless extremely important for contemporary expertise and figuring out the Earth's inside and formation of minerals via dwelling organisms. together with a number case stories of complicated platforms, from diamond, calcite and pyrite to crystals shaped via biomineralization, this publication establishes the atomic procedures in the back of crystal progress.
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Additional info for Crystals: Growth, Morphology, & Perfection
Various features of diffusion and convection associated with crystal growth in solution (a) in a beaker and (b) around a crystal. The crystal is denoted by the shaded area. Shown are: the diffusion boundary layer (db); the bulk diffusion (D); the convection due to thermal or gravity difference (T); Marangoni convection (M); buoyancy-driven convection (B); laminar ﬂow, turbulent ﬂow (F); Berg effect (be); smooth interface (S); rough interface (R); growth unit (g). The attachment and detachment of the solute (solid line) and the solvent (open line) are illustrated in (b).
Taylor, and it immediately played an essential role in the understanding of the plastic properties of crystalline materials, but it took a further twenty years to understand fully the importance of dislocations in crystal growth. 9, it was only in 1949 that the spiral growth theory, in which the growth of a smooth interface is assumed to proceed in a spiral step manner, with the step serving as a self-perpetuating step source, was put forward . Dislocations themselves play a role in promoting growth, but they may also be induced into existing, growing crystals at various stages.
The existence of roughening transitions has been demonstrated by computer simulation. A roughening transition resulting from increasing driving force is called a kinetic roughening transition. 14). The earliest theoretical predictions on the state of interfaces were made by Burton, Cabrera, and Frank , who demonstrated that the interface would, in most cases, be rough at the growth temperature for metal crystals. Jackson  suggested a system in which the solid and liquid phases are separated by an interface with one-layer thickness, and he calculated the energy changes as a function of the ratio of site occupancy of the constituent unit on the interface.
Crystals: Growth, Morphology, & Perfection by Ichiro Sunagawa