By Norman Russell
As a ruler of the church of Alexander and president of the 3rd Ecumenical Council of 431, Cyril used to be the most strong males of the 5th century. not just did he outline the concept that of christological orthodoxy for the following centuries, yet he's additionally usually considered as an unscrupulous cleric who was once liable for the homicide of the feminine thinker Hypatia and for the overthrow of the archbishop Nestorius. Cyril of Alexandria offers key choices of Cyril's writings with the intention to make his notion obtainable to scholars. The writings are all freshly translated and a longer creation outlines Cyril's existence and instances, his scholastic procedure, his christology, his ecclesiology, his eucharistic doctrine, his spirituality, and his impact at the Christian culture.
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44 There was also a problem of terminology. The key words ousia, physis, hypostasis and prosopon were still in the process of becoming technical terms and are used by both protagonists in a fluid, not to say confusing, manner. Ousia is ‘substance’ or ‘essence’, the irreducible being of something. In Aristotelian usage it could also mean the universal, the genus or the substratum. Physis has a range of meanings very similar to ousia. It signifies ‘nature’ or ‘essence’ or ‘substratum’. 45 Hypostasis has the fundamental meaning of ‘support’ or ‘substructure’.
In consequence Israel has been replaced by the Gentiles: What more, then, should one say, or what is remarkable about those who believe in Christ compared with Israel, since the latter too is said to have been begotten by God, according to the text, ‘Sons have I begotten and brought up, but they have rejected me’ (Is. 1:2)? To this I think one should reply as follows: First, that since ‘the law has but a shadow of the good things to come instead of the true form of these realities’ (Heb. 10:1), even this was not given to the descendants of Israel for them to have in a literal sense but was depicted in them typologically and figuratively ‘until the time of the reformation’ (Heb.
Nestorius preferred to speak of two prosopa (meaning ‘roles’, as opposed to Cyril’s single prosopon, which meant ‘hypostasis’). For him the humanity and the divinity each had to be given its due weight. Each was a separate reality which together made a single reality. Looking back on the controversy many years later from his desert exile, he set out his understanding of prosopic union as opposed to Cyril’s hypostatic union: You should not have accused me and calumniated me as if I did not confess a single prosopon in two natures, or as if I set the natures apart in separation and division, as if they were separated in a spatial sense and distant from one another.
Cyril of Alexandria by Norman Russell