By Finn Lied (auth.), Kristen Folkestad (eds.)
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The absorption then occurs simultaneousl~ over the entire polar caps, down to geomagnetic latitudes of ~ 65 The duration of the events may be several days, and the absorption lS sometimes very strong. The occurrence of absorption with these characteristics is known to accompany increases in the intensity of cosmic radiation at ground level, following some strong solar flares. These events are extremely rare. The first one to be observed took place in 1942, and since then less than fifteen such increases have been recorded.
2. MORPHOLOGY We have found a north polar enhancement to be a regular feature of the ionosphere throughout the year during all local times. It was identified on all but eight of the 302 cross-sections analyzed. The general features of electron density distribution near the polar maximum are apparent in Figure 1. There is usually a monotonic decrease in electron density with increasing dip latitude north of about 4oo dip. This extends through all levels between the satellite and the F 2 peak. The decrease continues until the axis of the 'trough' is reached at an average dip latitude of 710N, The density then increases from this point poleward, and usually attains a maximum value at about 85°N.
Short term forecasts, based on flare Observations, are quite feasible at present. If a major flare is observed, accompanied by a type IV radio burst, there is at least a 50 per cent chance that it will be followed by a PCA. As we have seen, the time delay to the onset of the PCA will depend to a certain degree on the position of the flare. It may be less than one hour for western flares, and more than 12 hours for some eastern flares. Also variations in the absorption during the development of the PCA might be taken advantage of.
Ionospheric Radio Communications by Finn Lied (auth.), Kristen Folkestad (eds.)