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By R. A. F. Cas

ISBN-10: 0412446405

ISBN-13: 9780412446405

ISBN-10: 9400931670

ISBN-13: 9789400931671

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Extra info for Volcanic Successions Modern and Ancient: A geological approach to processes, products and successions

Sample text

When the water exsolves, the magma viscosity begins to increase. However, the exsolved phases, are very low FLUID FLOW CHARACTER viscosity fluids, which may affect the overall bulk viscosity. In low viscosity magmas such as basalt, exsolution of volatiles may have relatively little effect on bulk viscosity because the low viscosity is largely due to the effects of temperature and composition. The presence of abundant fluid bubbles, may enhance the already low viscosity. In more acidic magmas however, the viscosity of the magma is initially high, and may be significantly affected by exsolution.

Acting this is the rise velocity of the bubbles and of the magma, the latter being, in part, produced by volume increases associated with continued exsolution and expansion of volatiles, and by upward supply of magma from deeper levels. Many other aspects of explosive magmatic eruptions could be discussed, given space. Many of these are discussed by L. Wilson et al. (1978, 1980) and L. Wilson (1980a), including controls on the depth of the disruption surface in the conduit, eruption rates, eruption velocities and heights of eruption columns, and the interplay between magma properties and conduit geometry in controlling these.

More recent field and laboratory measurements have indicated that at sub-liquidus temperatures, lavas and common igneous melts generally have non-Newtonian rheologies (Robson 1967, Shaw et al. 1968, Shaw 1969, Murase & McBirney 1973, Pinkerton & Sparks 1978, McBirney & Noyes 1979, McBirney & Murase 1984). This behaviour is due to the presence of dispersed crystals and gas bubbles, and possibly due to the development of molecular structural units in a silicate melt. At above-liquidus (supra-liquidus) temperatures Newtonian rheology is applicable.

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Volcanic Successions Modern and Ancient: A geological approach to processes, products and successions by R. A. F. Cas

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